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Spanish Influence

Discussion in 'Chit Chat' started by tabtab13, Mar 30, 2010.

  1. tabtab13

    tabtab13 Active Member

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    As a child, I remember being told about the sack of Penzance and Mousehole by the Spanish. I also remember being told that surnames we think of as being Cornish, such as Jago and Jose, were Spanish in origin and probably came about from Spanish sailors from the Armada who were shipwrecked along the coast and stayed on here. Whether that is true or not, I don't know.

    Anyone know much about this subject?
     
  2. treeve

    treeve Major Contributor

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    A few stories on site about the sack and the fears. As to names, the Spanish suffered a terrible time as they circled 'Britain', the seas, weather and rocks claimed many a ship. Many made landfall their homes, Scotland and Ireland included. Any Jago [Iago] you may come across could be a of Spanish origin, but not necessarily from these here parts. I was thinking of doing a piece on that subject at some time.
    I should add that there are other sources for Jago (James).
    I believe only one Spanish ship was wrecked near Plymouth, others were lost in battle and by fireship. The terrible storms drove 60 plus ships to the coasts of Scotland and Ireland.
    I believe wiki has done some kind of list, but I have my historical records here.
     
    Last edited: Mar 31, 2010
  3. treeve

    treeve Major Contributor

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    Surnames and The Spanish Armada
    Surnames in ‘Britain’ developed as a necessity for taxation purposes from c1090.
    It is possible in certain very rare documented cases to track back Suleiman, Tamerlain, Gaius Julius Caesar or even Pope Joan. British surnames have developed from the peoples that brought names with them, using the languages that they themselves used, coupled with indigenous interpretation or understanding of those names. Some names have been handed down from Old English, others have been assimilated. The attempts to link with William the Conqueror are legion, however it is more likely to have been a descent from one of his court or delegated commanders. Born the illegitimate son of Robert II the Magnificent and daughter of a tanner Herleva Fulbert, he was affectionately known as William the *******. Until he and his ‘Viking’ raiders took over England. Normans were basically Danes. Like Danes, Anglo-Saxons and Celts used only their single name, occasionally in records an addition of their father’s name, estate or occupation, but not used otherwise. Only too often a worker would be given the name of his employer to supplant that of his father. From this it is an easy step to records that include ‘alias’. From that the change of use of surname, making attempts in early genealogy nigh impossible. Sources then for surnames, relationship, occupation, employer, nickname, local names, names given when elsewhere, some from immediate locale (eg a wood) or a specific locale (eg York), various patronymics (son of), in some cases prepositions are retained ‘de’ in Delaware for example, then there is the retention of ‘filius’ etc in a name. Names have origins in Old English, Scandinavia, Norman (a form of French), Breton (they fought alongside the Normans and were rewarded with lands), there are local variations, names from Welsh, Cornish, Scots, Irish and Manx. All the while other visitors came to these shores, bringing more richness to the stew pot. All manner of languages. Some were retained, some were ‘Anglicised’. It is in the process of genealogical threadwork that the origin of a name can be identified. For example Jago could be Spanish, Iago, an equivalent of James, or it could be Cornish, Welsh or Hereford. If a tree can be traced back further than 1588 that is the marker. But, peoples from Europe came to ‘Britain’ over centuries, as traders, as simple immigrants, as slaves, as shipwrecked mariners, as escaped crewmen, as smugglers. Most changed their names by local usage to a local equivalent, and the trail ends there. One of the largest was from The Spanish Armada; crewed by Spaniards, Portuguese, Italians, amongst many others. But very few survived. [I am writing up that now]
    [I see the swear word checker has starred the name of William the ______- a name given to describe a child born out of wedlock]
     
    Last edited: Mar 31, 2010
  4. treeve

    treeve Major Contributor

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    I am beginning to get irritated. As I am writing up my narrative, I am more concerned with the abuses of the Rules of War and the terrible fate that the sailors of The Spanish Armada met. Out of interest over a few points, I make the occasional check, only to find copies across the net from Wiki (what is the point?), and others with differing dates and facts. I know the crescent formation was not held until after the battle off Plymouth, so why do I read of the ships being observed off the Lizard in that defensive formation, and to add to it the ships arrived before they had left La Coruna. Maybe Médico Que was in charge?
     
  5. treeve

    treeve Major Contributor

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    Why is this important? You may see in various houses, chests and panelling 'in the Spanish style' some said to be from The Spanish Armada. As to Cornwall as a county (Duchy), of the Armada only three ships can have yielded any furnished or salvaged contents; the Rosario (captured), the San Pedro el Mayor (wrecked) and San Salvador (captured and sank in prize). Furnishings and other collections may have been plunder from galleons taken in other naval Campaigns of the Elizabethan period; but probably most of them came to England through the peaceful trade with Spain that was carried on for many years before and after The Spanish Armada. Many of these Panels and Chests are brought back from The Caribbean by landed gentry from their own Estates over 200 years or more. The details are clear of grapes, cane and nubile young women. By drawing on records of the 16th century, all I can say is that the story is more vicious and terrifying than Pulp Fiction and The Wicker Man put together.

    These were the lucky ones;
    A mystery is attached to the wreck of the c550 ton urca San Pedro el Mayor; she was one of the two hospital ships of The Armada. This was an entirely new concept, to have a hospital ship. She had forged her way right around the coast and past Scotland, through the fearsome seas and weather, and taken right down to the Bay of Biscay and somehow back up the Channel. The last week of October she hit the rocks of Bolt Head, near Hope Cove. She was plundered by locals. Inspection showed her to be beyond salvage, full of water and the weather being ‘such as none could get aboard’. Not even the ordnance was considered worthy of saving it was ‘all iron and no brass’.

    The San Salvador in her damaged state was being taken from Weymouth to Portland. She sank at Studland Bay, near Poole. She was manned by a prize crew, 34 saved and 23 drowned, including the ‘six Spaniards and Flemings that came in the same ship out of Spain.’
     
    Last edited: Apr 1, 2010
  6. trepolpen

    trepolpen Major Contributor

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    Getting back to tabtab and the name 'Jago', I have two references: G. Pawley White gives, JAGO/JACO/JACKA - Cornish forms of James. Place names Treago, Crantock, and Trago, St Pinnock, are both spelt Treiagu in 13th century.

    Rev Brian Coombes of Bodmin says, " JAMES, JAGO, JACOB . These are all from 'James'; JAGO is the Cornsih version; JAMES is 14 times more common in Cornwall than in England, though it is widespread there. There must have been a special regard for St James the Great (Apostle) in Cornwall, possibly based on the pilgrim route to Santiago de Compostella. Is JAGO and its extinct form IAGO, linked with this?"

    This is what I think was the case here in Cornwall. Owners of Boats, extorted a lot of money taking advantage of those trying to save their souls and who dared to brave the Bay of Biscay in rickety vessels crammed overfull with pilgrims and stinking bilges. St Michael's Mount was one port of call because of its alleged apparition of St Michael the Archangel in 495AD before hiring a boat and going on across the sea. Fowey was another regular departure point.
     
  7. treeve

    treeve Major Contributor

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    Now, THAT is a much more intelligent reasoning; I am putting together some thoughts on the Lives of the Saints and pilgrimages.
    Thank you :)

    Incidentally, I can immediately see that 'Treiagu' predates the pilgrimages.
     
    Last edited: Apr 2, 2010
  8. treeve

    treeve Major Contributor

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    I have some notes on Licences of vessels and captains. As well as dates, and the story surrounding Compostela. Coming shortly.

    A cargo carrier from Penzance named Mousehole left in June 1588 to France for salt. On 27th July the captain of the Mousehole saw the Spanish Armada. The master returned the ship with all sail to port; [the Spanish Armada was seen from St Michael’s Mount, and from The Lizard on the 29th July 1588]. The master states ‘Being bound for France to collect salt, I encountered great ships between Scilly and Ushant, they were Spaniards, three of them gave chase, but I managed to escape; They were all great ships, and as I might judge, from 200 tons to 800 tons.‘; That was about the fact of it. The larger ships were c140 feet in length.

    That concludes the Spanish Armada as far as Cornwall is concerned.

     
  9. treeve

    treeve Major Contributor

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    St James/Iago/Jago/Jacob
    The body of St James was found in 808, ratified to 813 by the Archbishop of Santaigo in 1898. The place where St James was buried was Iria Flavia, near a Benedictine Monastery formed 798 by King Alfonso. The body was entrusted to them in 831. Alfonso III had a new church built in 862-893. Iria Flavia became known as El Padron. Pilgrimages came from across Spain, visited even by Moors who wrote of ‘St Yakob of Jalikijah [St James of Galicia]. Then came a young Caliph of Cordoba (Ibn Abu Amir later named Al Manzor al Allah) who was jealous of Compostela, with his army and destroyed the town on the 10th August 997. Having found the town empty of all, he was surprised to discover one man who had not fled, a monk at his devotions at the tomb. Al Manzor spared him and set a guard over the tomb to protect it and the monk. Following this after a glorious vision of St James, the Knights of Santiago de Espada came into being. The town was changing. Diego Pelaez, bishop of Iria 1070, rebuilt Compostela. A new church was begun in 1082, designed by Master Bernard the Marvellous, using Cluny based designs. The curch was completed in 1138 and consecrated in 1211. Then comes Don Diego Gelmirez, in 1100 he was ordained subdeacon at Rome, he proceeded to energetically build the cathedral of Sant Iago and many other buildings. Because of the association with Cluny, pilgrims were now coming from France, from as far as Mont St Michele. Gelmirez fought hard to get Rome to accept the status of St James in Spain. He fought hard physically to protect the city from the Moors in 1115, but in 1117 the cathedral was put to the torch by rebellious Galicians, with little damage. To protect the relics of St James the marble coffin and body were placed in a vault under the altar in 1135 and they remained so until verified by Cardinal Miguel Paya y Rico archbishop of Santiago in 1884. Pilgrims came from Western Europe seeking healing. In 1059 Wido, archbishop of Milan, journeyed to the shrine, whereupon Compostela became a ‘a most favoured devotional resort. Including for those in England. This was a land pilgrimage, save for the crossing to northern France. In 1478 Pope Sextus IV proclaimed Compostela to be on the same level of a pilgrimage to Rome or Jerusalem. From England it was through, Paris, Tours, Vezelay and Arles, crossing the Pyrenees. As is usual with human nature money was to be made by the sale of guides and maps for the route. In 1535 one could be bought for two pence. Pilgrims also fell foul of opportunists and thieves. Sleeping draughts were known in 1370, for example, and administered secretly. Whilst they slept they were stripped of all. Some English pilgrims on ship landed at Bordeaux. Th eships were operated under a King’s licence; for the Keeper of the Tower of London was to be paid six pence by each pilgim – a Law unrepealed.
    Pilgrimage from England by sea to Galicia began c1430; issued licences were from Edward II and Henry VI. For an idea, at the peak of the pilgrimage, between 1446 and 1456 arrivals of 13 ships per year each carrying 800 pilgrims. That is not counting those that came by land, they only suffered the walk, those on board ship had other hardships to face as a part of their pennance. To give an idea of numbers of English pilgrimage, in 1434 Henry VI granted permission to 2,433 of his subjects to go to Compostela. In 1428 916 licences issued, and in 1434 2,460 licences. That is a lot of vessels carrying around 100 pilgrims in each, having to pay their way and cook for themselves on the journey. They made choices to sleep below in the cramped smelly area or on deck and get swamped with seas and beaten by winds.

    Here is one of the very first licences
    1394 ‘Know you that we have given licence to Oto Chambernoun, William Gilbert, and Richard Gilbert, to receive and embark in the harbour of Dartmouth a hundred pilgrims in a certain ship belonging to the same Oto, William, and Richard, called la Charite de Paynton, of which Peter Cok is captain’.

    These are all the Licences given to Cornish Masters.
    1) Peter July, master of the Trinity of Falmouth
    2) John Rede of the Trinity of Falmouth
    3) Phillip Mayowe of the Barry of Fowey, 2nd May 1432
    4) Ralph Wrythall of the Mary of Fowey,
    5) Thomas Jaundrell of the Mary of Landulph
    6) Roger Raffe of the Gabriel of Penzance
    7) Thomas Tregryn and John Blaunchen of the Mary of Fowey 3rd March 1456
    8) Thomas Gerard of the Julien of Fowey
    9) John Kydeston of the Bartholemew of Landelph
    10) John Nicholl of the Michael of Penzance Feb 1434
    11) John Nicholl of the barque Katherine of Penzance 8th May 1425
    12) John Nicholl of the Katherine of Penzance 25th May 1440
    13) John Russel of Fowey 3rd July 1414
    14) John Slugg of Saltash 14th March 1428
    15) John Slugg of the Thomas of Saltash 14th Jan 1434

    That is around 1500 pilgrims from Cornwall in 24 years. Four sailings from Penzance.
    So, for a Jago to have sourced from Spain before 1430, it would have been through a long pilgrimage to Plymouth or Portsmouth, or even Dover, to cross the Channel to Avranches or Rouen and then on to Compostela; perhaps only by report. Alternatively the Spanish could have brought the name with them on a sailing mission when trading or fishing.
     
    Last edited: Apr 3, 2010
  10. tabtab13

    tabtab13 Active Member

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    Jago = James seems to make more sense to me than a shipwrecked Spaniard (or Spaniards) called Jago setting up home in Cornwall and starting a family - would have thought they'd not be that popular all things considered.

    Thank you treeve and trepolpen for your contributions to this thread - it's been a fascinating read.

    My mind is now turning to Wreckers, so will start a thread on that.
     

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